(3) Gata (ghatta) watermills
Over time, people have become accustomed to the vagaries of climate and permanently settled in the foothills. This is a rather dangerous way of life in the mountains. Snowy peaks in the spring begins to melt and bubbling mountain river runs in a scary speed, wiping down everything in its path. Sometimes people have had to give up in front of the nature, and at the beginning of the spring launch the nomadic way of life. However, the mountains are always captivating them to come back.
One of the reasons is freely available natural resources, – and it is water. Like a small river, it flows past the each hill house. Water brings energy in the household. It is bracing and crystal clean. Rich in various minerals. It should not be subjected to thermo-treatment before use. Human has understood the mighty power of the water, and started to use it for domestic work, and namely – grain milling. Almost every house in the mountains you can find millstones for grinding grain. Within a short period, turning the millstone by hand, you can quickly prepare a small portion of flour for lunch. However, much more effort and time will be required grinding whole sack of grain. In this case, a very effective is the watermill, which Nepali called, gata. Place where the stream has created about one meter wide water falls, has installed (in modern language speaking) turbine.
The round wooden clog, where embedded 6-8 blades. The turbine in turn, with a long iron or a round wooden handle is connected to the millstones. The gear have a different technical performance. Those who can afford more, the turbine is being mounted on the lever. When grinding not take place, the turbine is lifted out of the water.
Turbines for interconnection with a millstone may be used a long leather strap that pass over the coils of different diameters. Thus changing the millstone speed.
The grain milling principle is simple. Conceived product is compressed between two stones and pulverized. The longer occurs grinding, the finer product, until it resembles coarse flour. Millstones have a round shape. On a stone surface is etched the small channels coming out from the center, and ends at the edge of the stone. At its center is a small hole, where pour grain.
Once the stone starts to turn, the product goes into the stones and grinding is going on. Grains turns into flour and through the small channels in stone are squeezed out and come in a special box or bags. Milled grain fineness depends not only on a grain quality (the degree of humidity), but also from the fine gutters, engraved millstone. Although milled flour quality does not meet standards, it contains much more minerals and vitamins, as opposed to the store bought flour. Bread baked with coarse flour is much healthier, it does not put on weight.
Mountain valleys, where there is a favorable climate, the mountain people engaged in cattle breeding and grain cultivation.
Gata is an essential complement to grain-growing business sector. Those who deal with the constant grain milling, uses strong water paths. Above it, hanging powerful turbines. Around the mill site is built stone wall with the roof covering. It is like a small factory that provides continuous grain milling. Turbine power are also used in other small household purposes, as a tool for sharpening, oil extractor, etc … Depending on the turbine power during the day is likely to grind a little more than one sack of grain. However, there are grain mills, using modern turbines made of steel, their capacity is much greater.
(2) The little wonder of the world
When K.T. Magar was born, the parents were unlikely to imagine that nature created the surprise that will please the whole world.
Already passed round five years from the time, when the world heard the news about the smaller man, who lives in Nepal. When K.T. Magar was born, the parents were unlikely to imagine that nature created the surprise that will please the whole world. The child grew in the family like all children. However, after years, no one could understand why Magar does not grow larger in stature. Even with a doctor’s advice, nothing seemed to help. Gradually, the family all got used to it.
News about the unusual boy gradually spread all over Nepal, and later the whole world. Until reaching the Guinness agency. Experts advised to wait until the boy reaches the age of eighteen. According to the rules, the record is registered only, when a person reaches that age. Soon came the long-awaited day.
Thus Magar was celebrated two anniversaries, eighteen years age, and a new Guinness World Record as the smallest man in the world. The little boy was taken to a clinic, where he, at the presence of doctor and experts were weighed and measured. Only after all the data were collected, for height and age, the overall decision was taken, and Magar was recorded as the smallest man in the world.
It was an unusual pleasure not only for the family, but also for the whole world. Little Magar was the world’s media spotlight. Magar’s father, Bahadur together with a representative of the Guinness World Record, Mr. Marcus Frigatti presented the certificate.
Fixed height and weight dimensions
Fixed height; 67,8cm
Fixed weight; 6,5 kg
Age; 18 years
Place: Pokhara. Nepal
Date: 2010. 14.10
Protocol by Mr. Marcus Frigatti Guinness World Record
* * *
… a bit fanny …
Either already passed round five years since the world struck an unusual event. At that time, nature had created the miracle that soon the whole world admired. In his eighteen years of age, he was like any boy his age. However, the height was the dummy. Little Magar Khagendra from Nepal was able to amuse all … Together with the world’s press, I looked at the date of the event.
(2) Wishing Tika
As everywhere in the world, farmers have harvested autumn harvest. There, where the climate is rewarding, sometimes it was possible to collect two or even three harvests a year. Nepal is known for its contrasting nature. Mountain areas, where the climate is very harsh, cereal harvest is modest. In contrast, the southern areas, where the natural conditions are grateful, it is possible to get two harvests. It is an emotional event, when the farmer can boast of a rich harvest, when all grain bins are full and the family is provided with food for the winter period.
After a good harvest, people have come together and judge for their work done. The difficulties which faced. For the bad time, which sometimes it was the reason for a poor harvest. Manifestation of evil, which a farmer sometimes were unable to explain. As time passed, these traditions have evolved as culture event. Dashain Festival – good victory over evil. This is a festival where people wish good to each other, and wish to forget the evil. Dashahara, it means; away all the bad. By showing honor and tribute, in these days, people visit each other. Nepali holds in high esteem the elderly, which is as an integral part of Eastern culture. Wherever people meet, they wishes good to each other and paint Tika, on the forehead.
Tika,Tikha – rice and cottage cheese mixture, painted bright red. Outside the city, the Himalayan mountain areas Festival holds more mysterious mood. Special attention is devoted to the ritual, – swinging. With it, Nepali firmly believe that this ritual always striven, to put off the evil spirits and illness. This, in their meaning, is like a reincarnation. Across the country, wherever you go, all the temples are filled with the smell of incense and the sanctuary is being taken over by candlelight.
On these days, people radiates something special. It is an aura, that takes over the whole of Nepal. These days, all people are equal. No one is left out. Even those who feel lonely and has no relatives. They are devoted to a special dignity to visit the presidential palace. President gives its blessing to all, without exception, who have come to the palace. People after blessing, feel returning to a new life. For a moment, the world has come to a standstill, the entire Nepal forget evil and turning with renewed vigor in the future. … see more ….
(1) Honey hunters ( moha mouri) Himalaya
With bees is like with people, you can never predict anything… Do not approach them if you’re in a bad mood, or you are under the influence of a strong perfume. Bees have as many traits as a human.
Every year thousands of people are bitten by bee. What most irritate bee, and why they are attacking people. To this question, reply knew bee hunters, working along the steep hillsides and know all the bees whim. There are special circumstances when the bees start to behave very aggressively. That is, the colony formation time. At that time happens fierce competition with neighboring bees. A period, when the bees are very sensitive to smells and colors. This is totally false belief use colored synthetic clothing and to approach the bee family, during swarming period, as it often tourists do, avoiding the bees attacks. In doing so, the bees are provoked even more.
Honey bee colonies establish bags to the steep rock walls, almost 80m in height, which is located near the water, hard to reach places. It is a vertical rock wall, with plenty of bumps and small caves. The only way to access to the colony, by a rope ladder. Honey is collected in the second half of summer, when the bags are full and their color is much darker. It is quite a laborious process. Along with the preparation, it takes almost a whole week. The higher the bee family, the more time devoted to honey harvesting. Sometimes vertical cliff wall is all covered with bee-honey-bags from one place. For locals, it is the only source of profit, sometimes quite lucrative. Generally, honey harvesting cleanup participation take five people. Already a week earlier, the clothes are kept in a smoke. It is a coarse fabric of jute material to size of sheet intended for cover the body down. Smoke intention is, to completely eliminate unwanted smells from clothes that could provoke bee. When everything is ready, over the cliff wall is hanged a rope ladder. The first task is to smudge the hive.
Slowly over the rope ladder, failing fast motion, hunter with leaf tufts approaches beehives. The ignite tuft slowly zooming in for the proposed site. Feeling the smell of smoke, the bee for a moment remain peaceful. This moment, when the bee are slightly stunned, is deftly used. His assistant from the cliff top serving long pole, which intended bee-bags exemption from the cliff wall. It is not always possible to separate all honey from the rock. Sometimes only in parts.
Below the cliff wall, two assistants with a large basket in the hands catch falling honey. Care must be taken, because honey pieces are very heavy, even up to eight kilograms. When the last honey-sum has been collected, the hunter gives a sign to move the ladder to the next colony. And the whole proces starts from the beginning. Working all day possible to collect honey from four to six hives. It should be noted that the work is very risky.
A lot of accidents happen when, the old tow wicker ladders, which are often used for several years in a row and abandoned, hanging over the rocky precipice.
Before entering the market, collected honey is thoroughly tested. Fresh honey is rich in vitamins and minerals. Newly collected honey is toxic, and it should be used very carefully. Overdose can cause side effects like; allergies, dizziness, vomiting, increase in body temperature …
Wholesale honey has come considerably diluted. Unfortunately, the international market for wild bee honey is not opened.